人体最脏部位,血红素铁
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女性比男性更易贫血,据统计,亚洲女性平均4~5人中就有1人罹患贫血,比例相当高。广东省中医院临床营养科营养师黄英表示:贫血患者不仅要吃药,“会”吃饭也很重要。想“吃掉”贫血,尤其需要补充血红素铁,不建议食用植物性食物来补铁。营养不良是贫血最常见原因医学上,在一定容积的循环血液内红细胞计数、血红蛋白量以及红细胞压积均低于正常标准者称为贫血。其中以血红蛋白最为重要,成年男性低于120g/L,成年女性低于110g/L,一般可认为贫血。要治贫血,首先要看贫血形成原因。黄英介绍,各种急慢性失血如外伤、手术、消化道溃疡等;各种疾病如肿瘤、慢性肾衰等;造血系统疾病;营养不良 如偏食、挑食、各种进食障碍等,都可造成贫血。“其中营养不良是最常见的原因,其中又以缺铁性贫血和巨幼细胞贫血最常见。”黄英说,营养不良导致造血原料 包括铁、叶酸、维生素B12、维生素B6、维生素C、蛋白质及铜和其他重金属等的摄入不足,使血红蛋白低于正常。吃药补铁切记避开“阻铁食物”我国缺铁性贫血发生率达到15%~20%,其中妇女儿童贫血率高达20%以上。铁是制造血红蛋白必不可少的原料,铁供应不足,血红蛋白减少,易形成贫血。因此,铁剂常作为“补血药”,用于缺铁性贫血的预防和辅助治疗。“千万要注意的是,口服补铁药要避开铁吸收阻碍物!”黄英介绍,无论是有机铁剂还是无机铁剂,应于进餐时或餐后服用,尽量不与其他药物同服,因 为其他药物中的钙盐或镁盐亦可抑制铁的吸收。服用“补血药”期间,要避开茶、咖啡、橄榄等,因为其中所含鞣酸会与铁结合产生沉淀,影响疗效。蛋类、牛乳、 含膳食纤维多的食物等也应尽量少吃,以免影响铁的吸收。能促进铁吸收的食物包括含维生素C丰富的食物,如猕猴桃、柿子椒、草莓、橙子等。维生素B12“补血”要对症叶酸,在人体内参与氨基酸及核酸的合成,并与维生素B12共同促进红细胞的生成和成熟,因此维生素B12、叶酸等“补血药”,对缺乏叶酸和维生素B12所致的巨幼细胞贫血有特效,对其他贫血无效。需要注意的是,维生素B12并非万能,如治疗原发性或遗传性铁粒幼细胞贫血就需要服大剂量的维生素B6,同时维生素B6对其他贫血也无效。因此补血要对症,不可盲目使用。饮食上,巨幼细胞贫血患者,要多吃蛋白质丰富的肉蛋奶类,多吃含叶酸丰富的牛肝、深绿色叶菜、麦胚、酵母、菜花、橘柑、香蕉,多吃含维生素B12丰富的牡蛎、羊肉、鸡蛋、大豆发酵食品(臭豆腐、腐乳、豆豉、酱油)等。“吃掉”贫血植物补铁不靠谱除了吃药,其实从食物中也可补铁。黄英表示,血红素铁来自含动物蛋白质高的食物,如瘦肉、动物肝脏、动物血、鱼、禽类等,这些食物不仅血红素铁含量高,而且在吸收过程中不受膳食中其他食物的影响,建议多食用这类食物补铁。尤其是贫血的高危人群如经期女性、老年人、小孩等,平时更要多吃。植物补铁则相对“不靠谱”。虽然蔬菜、谷物、赤豆等植物性食物含有非血红素铁,但植物性食物含纤维、草酸盐、植物盐、磷酸盐和多酚较多,影响铁 的吸收,所以尽管很多食物如菠菜、香菜、韭菜、坚果等同样富含铁,但吸收利用率太低,起不到补铁的效果。尤其是蕹菜、茭白、菠菜要少吃,实在嘴馋,可食用 时先在沸水中焯过。中医食疗方要配用行气食物中医认为,气可以推动血液运行,血可以运载气,气血相互滋生,气虚则血少、血少则气虚,故在中医临床上一般是气血双补以达到纠正贫血的目的。常 用药物有当归、阿胶、熟地、黄芪、党参;而常用食疗方则推荐:当归炖猪蹄、清蒸人参鸡、归参山药猪腰、五香牛肉、黄芪蒸鹌鹑等。黄英特别提醒,补血类食物多味甘质腻,容易碍胃,故应用时要多配用行气健脾的食物,如砂仁、萝卜、陈皮、淮山、大枣等|xGv00|b2687b35403506da88a4a534653a1b01 /*微博划词转发@by tomiezhang shqzheng austinjin@2012-01-17 腊月廿四*/(function{var WBwd = W.WBwd = function{return new WBwd.fn.init;}WBwd.fn = WBwd.prototype = {$:function{return document.getElementById},_x:0,_y:0,_getSele:function(){//获得选取内容if(W.getSelection){return W.getSelection().toString();}else if(document.getSelection){return D.getSelection(); 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}.shareBtn24 .s_weibo { background-position:-62px -200px }.shareBtn24 .s_qzone { background-position:-62px -229px; }.shareBtn24 .s_weixin { background-position:-62px -258px; }.shareBtn24 .s_pengyou { background-position:-62px -287px; }.shareBtn24 .s_sina { background-position:-62px -316px; }.shareBtn24 .s_renren { background-position:-62px -345px; }.shareBtn24 .s_qmail { background-position:-62px -374px; }.shareBtn24 .s_kaixin { background-position:-62px -403px; }/*app down*/.Tool-Article-QQ ul{margin-top:3px;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconB{float:right;width:262px;height:30px;margin-top:10px;padding:0;background:url() no-repeat;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconB span{display:block;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconB b{display:none;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconB a{display:block;width:262px;height:30px;background:none;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconB a:hover{background:url() 0 -40px no-repeat;text-decoration:none;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconBfin{width:292px;height:30px;background-position:0 -80px;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconBfin a{width:320px;height:30px;background:none;}.Tool-Article-QQ .appIconBfin a:hover{background:url() 0 -120px no-repeat;} 分享到: 腾讯微博 QQ空间 微信 朋友 新浪微博 人人 QQ邮箱 开心网 新闻手机客户端 随时掌握天下事 |xGv00|b2687b35403506da88a4a534653a1b01 /*微博划词转发@by tomiezhang shqzheng austinjin@2012-01-17 腊月廿四*/(function{var WBwd = W.WBwd = function{return new WBwd.fn.init;}WBwd.fn = WBwd.prototype = {$:function{return document.getElementById},_x:0,_y:0,_getSele:function(){//获得选取内容if(W.getSelection){return W.getSelection().toString();}else if(document.getSelection){return D.getSelection(); 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var tp = document.createElement;tp.;tp.style.cssText = "width:59px;height:22px;position:absolute;visibility: hidden;text-decoration:none;z-index:899;cursor:pointer";tp.innerHTML = '

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